Porfirio Diaz ruled as dictator for 35 years by 1910. Porfirio invited foreign investors to industrialize their land. This prospers the Mexican landowners but, most Mexicans were peasants. Peasants lived in poverty without land or education. The peasants demand for land was crushed by the government. The peasants started to get angered by the way the government treated them. The factory workers earned little and were tired and angry. Porfirio sat down with an American reporter in 1908. During this Interview he brought up the point that Mexico was ready for a democracy and his successor should be a president elected democratically. He supported the creation of political parties. Francisco Madero a lawyer from Cahuilla rose to the challenge and ran against Porfirio Diaz. Diaz imprisoned him after acknowledging the point he threatened his further rule over Mexico . Diaz declared himself as Leader of Mexico once again. Madero wrote the Plan De San Luis Potosi . This plan called for Mexicans to rise up and fight against Diaz on November 20th 1910. March 1913,Venustiano Carranza, governor of Coahuila proclaimed his Plan De Guadalupe which rejected the government at the time and planned a continuation of Madero’s police. He formed constitutionalists army, people like Villa and Zapata joined the effort to overthrow the government. They succeeded in July 1914. Venustiano Carranza was elected president . He approved a constitution with rules still used to today. This constitution enforced three major points that are land, labor, and religion. It let large estates to be broken up. Put restrictions on foreigners owning land and allowed nationalization which is government takeover of natural resources. Church land was now owned by the government. The constitution also set a minimum wage law and people had the right to strike. The constitution gave suffrage to only men but gave women some protection. Women were entitled to the same pay as men for the same job. Carrenza was pressured into establishing that women can draw up contracts and take part in legal suits. Women also had equal authority with men in family funds.The Constitution was just a set of goals to be achieved later on. In the 1920s the government finally restored order and started reforms. The government helped Indian peasants gain back land that was taken from them. The government supported labor unions and set out an end to illiteracy in peasants. So schools and libraries were set up. Mexicans in rural areas finally learned Spanish. Teachers were often young women who worked for low pay. AS they taught skills they spread the ideas of nationalism in Mexico . This brought people closer together as one country and one nationality. As the rebellions started Mexico became the first Latin American country to commit to social and political reforms. The government created the PRI (Institutional revolutionary party) in 1929. It has governed Mexican government still to today. The PRI accommodated all groups. Like the business and military leaders, peasants and workers. The leaders of the PRI didn’t like political opposition so the PRI suppressed it. They backed up industry and encouraged the increase of it. 1938 took hold of foreign oil industries which was a try to rid foreign influence in Mexico . The Mexican government has furthered the goal of eliminating foreign influence in Mexico in the late 1930s. Mexico later tried to further itself from depending on the United States . After World War I trade with Europe dramatically decreased for Latin America . Latin America competed with trade since the market was for more advanced goods like synthetic textiles and nitrates. Latin American dependence on the United States affected the countries during the Great Depression. Prices plunged for exports as demand was lessened. Although the prices of imports rose. Economic Identity filled Latin America . They wanted to develop their own economy and fully extinguished foreign influence. Consumers could not afford costly imports. Entrepreneurs set up local factories to produce their own goods. They wanted government to raise Tariffs which are taxes on goods. So they can protect their industries from going bankrupt. The government fully took over all foreign enterprises.
Citations: "Mexican Revolution of 1910." World History: The Modern Era. ABC-CLIO, 2012. Web. 11 Mar. 2012. http://worldhistory.abc-clio.com/Search/Display/309819?terms=mexican+revolution
Consular, Gaceta. "The Mexican Revolution 1910." 4 Feb. 2007. Web. 11 Mar. 2012. <http://www.mexconnect.com/articles/2824-the-mexican-revolution-1910>.
Photo Citation: "Artillery in the Mexican Revolution." Latin American Studies. Web. 11 Mar. 2012. <http://www.latinamericanstudies.org/mexican-artillery.htm>.
Primary Source #1:Constitution of 1917 Citation: "Los Constituyentes :: EspectÃ¡culo Teatral Y Multimedia." Los Constituyentes. Web. 06 Mar. 2012. <http://losconstituyentes.org/fotos.html>.
Primary Source #2:The Plan of Guadalupe by Venustiano Carranza (1913)
Citation: "Teatro Iturbide." Los Constituyentes. Web. 06 Mar. 2012. <http://losconstituyentes.org/personajes.html>.